Anyamathanha Nepabunna Community
In August 1998, the Anyamathanha people of Nepabunna set an Australian and international precedent by being the first indigenous community to voluntarily declare 58,000 hectares of their traditional land an Indigenous Protected Area (IPA). The community agreed to manage the Nantawarrina IPA in accordance with IUCN categories 2,4,5 and 6 for protected areas and agreed a management plan, allowing for both sustainable resource use in some areas, and strict protection of landscapes in others. A new concept in Australia, the IPA programme recognizes and allows for the continuation of traditional land and resource management, sustainable development, and the conservation of priority bio-regions. IPAs are recognized by the Australian Government as part of the formal National Reserve System. This is the first time that a protected area in Australia has been formally recognized on the basis of voluntary declaration, rather than legislation. This was achieved through an interpretation of the IUCN definition of a protected area as one which is 'managed through legal or other effective means'. A further five communities in Australia have since declared IPAs, preparing their Plans of Management and IUCN management categories on the Nantawarrina model. Six more communities are likely to declare their lands indigenous areas, bringing a total of 10,103.201 hectares of indigenous- owned land under IUCN conservation management. The process required extensive community planning and consultations, and drew on strong community commitment to managing the landscape based on both cultural and natural conservation values.